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成人英语语法讲义十

时间:2018-03-22 来源:武汉专升本网 浏览次数:29

  定语从句

  在复合句中起定语作用的从句叫做定语从句。定语从句分为两种:限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句。本节主要讲解各个关系代词及关系副词引导的定语从句、介词与关系代词的连用、准关系代词as,以及非限制性定语从句。

  1、关系代词 who,whom,whose,which,that引导的定语从句

  例1 The company official __ I thought would be fired received a raise .

  A.whom        B.whoever       C.who        D.of whom

  「答案」C(1998年40题)  定语从句中I thought 作插入语,who作主语。

  注:以下情况只用that 不用which 或who:

  (1)先行词被形容词最高级或序数词修饰时,如:He is the tallest man that I have ever seen.(此处不用who,因为前面有最高级修饰)

  (2)先行词前有any,all,the only,the very,the last,no时,如:She is the very person that we are looking for.(此处不能用who,因为前面有the very修饰)

  (3)先行词all,little,something,anything,nothing,mush,few等不定式代词时,如:Is there anything that I can do for you?(此处不用which,因为先行词位anything)

  (4)先行词既有人又有物时,如;We are talking about the persons and the things that we remember.(先行词为the persons and the things,人和物,故用that)

  例2 Of those ____ had applied for the jobs,only two were accepted.  A.persons     B.that     C.who      D.which

  「答案」B(1999年考题)

  2、关系副词 when,where,,why引导的定语从句

  例:We live in a time ____,more than ever before in history,people are moving.

  A.what         B.when         C.which       D.where

  「答案」B(2006年11月19题)

  3、关系代词前带介词的定语从句

  例1 The tsunami(海啸)____ over 160,000 people were killed was a terrible disaster for human beings.

  A.of that        B.among which     C.during that      D.in which

  「答案」D(2005年11月24题)

  例2 This is the dictionary ____ Idepend a lot whenever I have peoblems with new words.

  A.with which       B.in which      C.on which       D.for which

  「答案」C(2004年4月19题)  注:介词后面的关系词不用that.

  4、准关系代词as

  as 也可以用来引导定语从句。用作关系代词的as通常与such,the same,as连用。或者用在句首,指代后面的一句话,如as is known to all,as we all know,as is often the case 等。

  例1 I will buy the same shirt as you have. 我将买和你同样的衬衫。

  例2 He spoke in such easy English as everybody could understand. 他用大家都可以理解的简单英语说话。

  例3 ___ is well-known,the environment in China is badly in need of improvement.

  A.It     B.That       C.As      D.What

  「答案」C(2007年4月18题)

  例4  ____ is well known,the key to success lies in hard work.  A.As      B.that     C.Which    D.what

  「答案」A(2005年4月43题)

  例5  Do not trust such men ____ often like to praise you to your face. A.who     B.that     C.as      D.they

  「答案」C(2004年4月34题)

  5、非限制性定语从句

  (1)对被修饰的名词起附加说明,或进一步描述或补充。

  这种从句有一定的独立性,即使去掉,主句的意思仍然完整,只是内容相对不够具体。与主句之间常用逗号分开,所用的关系代词与限制性定语从句基本相同,但不能用关系词that引导。

  例1 It turned out that the man was an excellent policeman working in New York,____ had contributed a lot to the case.   A.that       B.which       C.who       D.where

  「答案」C(2007年4月26题)

  例2 He was very rude to the customs officer, ____ of course made things even worse.

  A.who       B.whom       C.what       D.which

  「答案」D(2006年4月21题)

  (2)名词(代词)+ 介词 + 关系代词。

  例1 The writer has published many books, ____ are well received by the readers.

  A.none of whom       B.all of which       C.neither of who       D.one of which

  「答案」B(2004年4月17题)

  关系代词修饰的是指物的名词。因此用which;根据本句的句意,要选肯定句。本句的意思是:这位作者出版了好多书,都非常受读者的欢迎。

  例2 The United States is composed of fifty states,two of ___ are separated from the others by land or water.

  A.them       B.that       C.which       D.those

  「答案」C(2003年23题)


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